ME Association February Summary of ME/CFS Published Research | 28 February 2018

February 28, 2018


We recently published an Index of Published ME/CFS Research and promised that we would update this listing each month.

This has now been done, with the research shown below having been published during the month of February 2018.

You can also find the index on the main page of our Research section.

1. Baos S, et al. (2018) Investigating the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of FITNET-NHS (Fatigue In Teenagers on the interNET in the NHS) compared to Activity Management to treat paediatric chronic fatigue syndrome(CFS)/myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME): protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

Trials 19 (1): 136. Link:

Paediatric chronic fatigue syndrome or myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) is a relatively common and disabling condition. The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) recommends Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) as a treatment option for paediatric CFS/ME because there is good evidence that it is effective. Despite this, most young people in the UK are unable to access local specialist CBT for CFS/ME. A randomised controlled trial (RCT) showed FITNET was effective in the Netherlands but we do not know if it is effective in the National Health Service (NHS) or if it is cost-effective. This trial will investigate whether FITNET-NHS is clinically effective and cost-effective in the NHS.
Seven hundred and thirty-four paediatric patients (aged 11-17 years) with CFS/ ME will be randomised (1:1) to receive either FITNET-NHS (online CBT) or Activity Management (delivered via video call). The internal pilot study will use integrated qualitative methods to examine the feasibility of recruitment and the acceptability of treatment. The full trial will assess whether FITNET-NHS is clinically effective and cost-effective. The primary outcome is disability at 6 months, measured using the SF-36-PFS (Physical Function Scale) questionnaire. Cost-effectiveness is measured via cost-utility analysis from an NHS perspective. Secondary subgroup analysis will investigate the effectiveness of FITNET-NHS in those with co-morbid mood disorders.
If FITNET-NHS is found to be feasible and acceptable (internal pilot) and effective and cost-effective (full trial), its provision by the NHS has the potential to deliver substantial health gains for the large number of young people suffering from CFS/ME but unable to access treatment because there is no local specialist service. This trial will provide further evidence evaluating the delivery of online CBT to young people with chronic conditions.

2. Bozzini S, et al. (2018) Cardiovascular characteristics of chronic fatigue syndrome.

Biomedical Reports 8 (1): 26-30. Link:

Patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) commonly exhibit orthostatic intolerance. Abnormal sympathetic predominance in the autonomic cardiovascular response to gravitational stimuli was previously described in numerous studies. The aim of the current study was to describe cardiological and clinical characteristics of Italian patients with CFS.
All of the patients were of Caucasian ethnicity and had been referred to our center, the Cardiology Department of the University Hospital of Pavia (Pavia, Italy) with suspected CFS. A total of 44 patients with suspected CFS were included in the present study and the diagnosis was confirmed in 19 patients according to recent clinical guidelines. The characteristics at baseline of the population confirm findings from various previous reports regarding the prevalence in females with a female to male ratio of 4:1, the age of onset of the pathology and the presence of previous infection by the Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus and other human herpesviruses.
Despite the current data indicating that the majority of the cardiological parameters investigated are not significantly different in patients with and without CFS, a significant association between the disease and low levels of blood pressure was identified. Other pilot studies revealed a higher prevalence of hypotension and orthostatic intolerance in patients with CFS. Furthermore, many of the CFS symptoms, including fatigue, vertigo, decreased concentration, tremors and nausea, may be explained by hypotension.

3. Corbitt M, et al. (2018) A Systematic Review of Probiotic Interventions for Gastrointestinal Symptoms and Irritable Bowel Syndrome in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis(CFS/ME).

Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins [Epub ahead of print] Link:

Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and irritable bowel (IB) symptoms have been associated with chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME). The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of these symptoms in CFS/ME, along with any evidence for probiotics as treatment.
Pubmed, Scopus, Medline (EBSCOHost) and EMBASE databases were searched to source relevant studies for CFS/ME. The review included any studies examining GI symptoms, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and/or probiotic use. Studies were required to report criteria for CFS/ME and study design, intervention and outcome measures. Quality assessment was also completed to summarise the level of evidence available.
A total of 3381 publications were returned using our search terms. Twenty-five studies were included in the review. Randomised control trials were the predominant study type (n = 24). Most of the studies identified examined the effect of probiotic supplementation on the improvement of IB symptoms in IBS patients, or IB symptoms in CFS/ME patients, as well as some other significant secondary outcomes (e.g. quality of life, other gastrointestinal symptoms, psychological symptoms).
The level of evidence identified for the use of probiotics in IBS was excellent in quality; however, the evidence available for the use of probiotic interventions in CFS/ME was poor and limited.
There is currently insufficient evidence for the use of probiotics in CFS/ME patients, despite probiotic interventions being useful in IBS. The studies pertaining to probiotic interventions in CFS/ME patients were limited and of poor quality overall. Standardisation of protocols and methodology in these studies is required.

4. Evans M and Jason L (2018) Onset patterns of chronic fatigue syndrome and myalgic encephalomyelitis.

Research on Chronic Diseases 2 (1): 001-0030. Link:

The onset of Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME) is considered a key area of inquiry. Case criteria for ME and CFS and much of the academic literature suggest that patients typically experience one of two possible onset patterns: sudden or gradual.
The current study provided an in-depth investigation of ME and CFS onset in order to provide insight into early symptoms, onset duration, and the progression of functional disability. We collected qualitative descriptive data to gain a rich description of illness onset from the patients’ point of view.
Overall, qualitative findings revealed detailed descriptions of ME and CFS onset experiences. Major themes that emerged from the data included: onset/illness progression patterns, illness causes, methods of adapting and coping, hardworking and active lives prior to onset, healthy lives prior to onset, prior health problems, comorbid health conditions, emotional responses to onset, exertional effects, the illness as life limiting, stress, traumatic experiences, lack of support, support, and treatment limitations. A closer examination of the onset/illness progression patterns that emerged from the data provided evidence that individuals with ME and CFS experience complex onset patterns. Furthermore, the study findings suggest that the method of categorizing individuals into sudden versus gradual onset groups fails to capture the more nuanced and varied onset experiences.
Prospective research studies that capture the onset period as it is developing could lead to improvements in the way we define and assess ME and CFS onset, and may also lead to methods for early detection, prevention, and individualized treatment approaches.

5. Germain A, et al. (2018) Metabolic profiling of a myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome discovery cohort reveals disturbances in fatty acid and lipid metabolism.

Molecular BioSystems 13 (2): 371-379. Link:

Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) remains a continuum spectrum disease without biomarkers or simple objective tests, and therefore relies on a diagnosis from a set of symptoms to link the assortment of brain and body disorders to ME/CFS. Although recent studies show various affected pathways, the underlying basis of ME/CFS has yet to be established.
In this pilot study, we compare plasma metabolic signatures in a discovery cohort, 17 patients and 15 matched controls, and explore potential metabolic perturbations as the aftermath of the complex interactions between genes, transcripts and proteins.
This approach to examine the complex array of symptoms and underlying foundation of ME/CFS revealed 74 differentially accumulating metabolites, out of 361 (P<0.05), and 35 significantly altered after statistical correction (Q<0.15). The latter list includes several essential energy-related compounds which could theoretically be linked to the general lack of energy observed in ME/CFS patients. Pathway analysis points to a few pathways with high impact and therefore potential disturbances in patients, mainly taurine metabolism and glycerophospholipid metabolism, combined with primary bile acid metabolism, as well as glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism and a few other pathways, all involved broadly in fatty acid metabolism. Purines, including ADP and ATP, pyrimidines and several amino acid metabolic pathways were found to be significantly disturbed. Finally, glucose and oxaloacetate were two main metabolites affected that have a major effect on sugar and energy levels.
Our work provides a prospective path for diagnosis and understanding of the underlying mechanisms of ME/CFS.

6. Janse A, et al. (2018) Efficacy of web-based cognitive-behavioural therapy for chronic fatigue syndrome: randomised controlled trial.

British Journal of Psychiatry 212 (2): 112-118. Link:

Face-to-face cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) leads to a reduction of fatigue in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Aims To test the efficacy of internet-based CBT (iCBT) for adults with CFS.
A total of 240 patients with CFS were randomised to either iCBT with protocol-driven therapist feedback or with therapist feedback on demand, or a waiting list. Primary outcome was fatigue severity assessed with the Checklist Individual Strength (Netherlands Trial Register: NTR4013).
Compared with a waiting list, intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis showed a significant reduction of fatigue for both iCBT conditions (protocol-driven feedback: B = -8.3, 97.5% CI -12.7 to -3.9, P < 0.0001; feedback on demand: B = -7.2, 97.5% CI -11.3 to -3.1, P < 0.0001). No significant differences were found between both iCBT conditions on all outcome measures (P = 0.3-0.9). An exploratory analysis revealed that feedback-on-demand iCBT required less therapist time (mean 4 h 37 min) than iCBT with protocol-driven feedback (mean 6 h 9 min, P < 0.001) and also less than face-to-face CBT as reported in the literature.
Both iCBT conditions are efficacious and time efficient. Declaration of interest: None.

7. Mandarano AH, et al. (2018) Eukaryotes in the gut microbiota in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome.

Peer Journal 6: e4282. Link:

Patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) often suffer from gastrointestinal symptoms and many are diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Previous studies, including from our laboratory, have demonstrated that the ME/CFS gut bacterial composition is altered and less diverse when compared to healthy individuals. Patients have increased biomarkers of inflammation and leaky gut syndrome.
To further investigate dysbiosis in the ME/CFS gut microbiome, we sought to characterize the eukaryotes present in the gut of 49 individuals with ME/CFS and 39 healthy controls. Using 18S rRNA sequencing, we have identified eukaryotes in stool samples of 17 healthy individuals and 17 ME/CFS patients.
Our analysis demonstrates a small, nonsignificant decrease in eukaryotic diversity in ME/CFS patients compared to healthy individuals. In addition, ME/CFS patients show a nonsignificant increase in the ratio of fungal phyla Basidiomycota to Ascomycota, which is consistent with ongoing inflammation in ME/CFS.
We did not identify specific eukaryotic taxa that are associated with ME/CFS disease status.

8. Moneghetti KJ, et al. (2018) Value of Circulating Cytokine Profiling During Submaximal Exercise Testing in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.

Scientific Reports 8 (1): 2779. Link:

Myalgic Encephalomyelitis or Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) is a heterogeneous syndrome in which patients often experience severe fatigue and malaise following exertion. Immune and cardiovascular dysfunction have been postulated to play a role in the pathophysiology. We therefore, examined whether cytokine profiling or cardiovascular testing following exercise would differentiate patients with ME/CFS.
Twenty-four ME/CFS patients were matched to 24 sedentary controls and underwent cardiovascular and circulating immune profiling. Cardiovascular analysis included echocardiography, cardiopulmonary exercise and endothelial function testing. Cytokine and growth factor profiles were analyzed using a 51-plex Luminex bead kit at baseline and 18 hours following exercise.
Cardiac structure and exercise capacity were similar between groups. Sparse partial least square discriminant analyses of cytokine profiles 18 hours post exercise offered the most reliable discrimination between ME/CFS and controls (κ = 0.62(0.34,0.84)).
The most discriminatory cytokines post exercise were CD40L, platelet activator inhibitor, interleukin 1-β, interferon-α and CXCL1.
In conclusion, cytokine profiling following exercise may help differentiate patients with ME/CFS from sedentary controls.

9. Monro JA and Puri BK (2018) A Molecular Neurobiological Approach to Understanding the Aetiology of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome(Myalgic Encephalomyelitis or Systemic Exertion Intolerance Disease) with Treatment Implications.

Molecular Neurobiology [Epub ahead of print]. Link:

Currently, a psychologically based model is widely held to be the basis for the aetiology and treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS)/myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME)/systemic exertion intolerance disease (SEID). However, an alternative, molecular neurobiological approach is possible and in this paper evidence demonstrating a biological aetiology for CFS/ME/SEID is adduced from a study of the history of the disease and a consideration of the role of the following in this disease: nitric oxide and peroxynitrite, oxidative and nitrosative stress, the blood-brain barrier and intestinal permeability, cytokines and infections, metabolism, structural and chemical brain changes, neurophysiological changes and calcium ion mobilisation. Evidence is also detailed for biologically based potential therapeutic options, including: nutritional supplementation, for example in order to downregulate the nitric oxide-peroxynitrite cycle to prevent its perpetuation; antiviral therapy; and monoclonal antibody treatment.
It is concluded that there is strong evidence of a molecular neurobiological aetiology, and so it is suggested that biologically based therapeutic interventions should constitute a focus for future research into CFS/ME/SEID.

10. Rowe PC, et al. (2018) Improvement of severe myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndromesymptoms following surgical treatment of cervical spinal stenosis.

Journal of Translational Medicine 16 (1): 21. Link:

Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a potentially disabling disorder. Little is known about the contributors to severe forms of the illness. We describe three consecutive patients with severe ME/CFS whose symptoms improved after recognition and surgical management of their cervical spinal stenosis.
All patients satisfied clinical criteria for ME/CFS and orthostatic intolerance and were later found to have cervical spinal stenosis. Overall function was assessed before and after surgery using the Karnofsky score and the SF-36 physical function subscale score.
Neurological findings included > 3+ deep tendon reflexes in 2 of 3, a positive Hoffman sign in 2 of 3, tremor in 2 of 3, and absent gag reflex in 1 of 3. The cervical spine canal diameter in the three patients ranged from 6 to 8.5 mm. One had congenital cervical stenosis with superimposed spondylosis, and two had single- or two-level spondylosis. Anterior cervical disc replacement surgery in two patients and a hybrid anterior cervical disc fusion and disc replacement in the third was associated with a marked improvement in myelopathic symptoms, resolution of light-headedness and hemodynamic dysfunction, improvement in activity levels, and improvement in global ME/CFS symptoms.
The prompt post-surgical restoration of more normal function suggests that cervical spine stenosis contributed to the pathogenesis of refractory ME/CFS and orthostatic symptoms. The improvements following surgery emphasize the importance of a careful search for myelopathic examination findings in those with ME/CFS, especially when individuals with severe impairment are not responding to treatment.

11. Sharif K, et al. (2018) On chronic fatigue syndrome and nosological categories.

Clinical Rheumatology [Epub ahead of print]. Link:

Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a heterogeneous disease which presents with pronounced disabling fatigue, sleep disturbances, and cognitive impairment that negatively affects patients' functional capability. CFS remains a poorly defined entity and its etiology is still in question. CFS is neither a novel diagnosis nor a new medical condition. From as early as the eighteenth century, a constellation of perplexing symptoms was observed that resembled symptoms of CFS.
Commencing with “febricula” and ending with CFS, many names for the disease were proposed including neurocirculatory asthenia, atypical poliomyelitis, Royal Free disease, effort syndrome, Akureyri disease, Tapanui disease, chronic Epstein-Barr virus syndrome, and myalgic encephalitis. To date, it remains unclear whether CFS has an autoimmune component or is a condition that precedes a full-blown autoimmune disease.
Research suggests that CFS may overlap with other diseases including postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS), autoimmune syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA), and Sjögren's syndrome. Additionally, it has been postulated that the earliest manifestations of some autoimmune diseases can present with vague non-specific symptoms similar to CFS. Sometimes only when exposed to a secondary stimulus (e.g., antigen) which could accelerate the natural course of the disease would an individual develop the classic autoimmune disease. Due to the similarity of symptoms, it has been postulated that CFS could simply be an early manifestation of an autoimmune disease.
This paper will provide a historical background review of this disease and a discussion of CFS as an entity overlapping with multiple other conditions.

12. Sharpe M, et al. (2018) Don’t reject evidence from CFS therapies.

Nature 554 (7690): 31. Link: Correspondence to “A Reboot for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Research”

13. Singh S, et al. (2018) Humoral Immunity Profiling of Subjects with Myalgic Encephalomyelitis Using a Random Peptide Microarray Differentiates Cases from Controls with High Specificity and Sensitivity.

Molecular Neurobiology 55 (1): 633-641. Link:

Myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) is a complex, heterogeneous illness of unknown etiology. The search for biomarkers that can delineate cases from controls is one of the most active areas of ME research; however, little progress has been made in achieving this goal. In contrast to identifying biomarkers that are directly involved in the pathological process, an immunosignature identifies antibodies raised to proteins expressed during, and potentially involved in, the pathological process. Although these proteins might be unknown, it is possible to detect antibodies that react to these proteins using random peptide arrays.
In the present study, we probe a custom 125,000 random 12-mer peptide microarray with sera from 21 ME cases and 21 controls from the USA and Europe and used these data to develop a diagnostic signature. We further used these peptide sequences to potentially uncover the naturally occurring candidate antigens to which these antibodies may specifically react with in vivo.
Our analysis revealed a subset of 25 peptides that distinguished cases and controls with high specificity and sensitivity. Additionally, Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) searches suggest that these peptides primarily represent human self-antigens and endogenous retroviral sequences and, to a minor extent, viral and bacterial pathogens.

14. Sunnquist M and Jason LA (2018) A re-examination of the cognitive behavioral model of chronic fatigue syndrome.

Journal of Clinical Psychology [Epub ahead of print]. Link:

The cognitive behavioral model of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) suggests that cognitions and reduced activity level perpetuate the fatigue and impairment that individuals with CFS experience. The two empirical evaluations of this model resulted in conflicting findings. The current study examines the influence of case definition fulfillment on the applicability of this model to CFS.
A moderated mediation analysis was conducted on 990 individuals with CFS to reexamine the behavioral pathway of this model. Case definition fulfillment was entered as a moderator.
Findings were generally inconsistent with the cognitive behavioral model of CFS. Case definition fulfillment significantly moderated the relation between activity level and physical impairment (β = -0.08, p = 0.03); individuals who met more stringent case definitions demonstrated a weaker relation between activity level and impairment.
This model may not accurately represent the experience of individuals with CFS, particularly those who fulfill more stringent case definitions.

15. Van Den Houte M, et al. (2018) Perception of induced dyspnea in fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome.

Journal of Psychosomatic Research 106: 49-55. Link:

Dyspnea perception is distorted in patients with medically unexplained dyspnea [difficult or laboured breathing, shortness of breath]. The goals of this study were 1) to replicate these results in patients with fibromyalgia and/or chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), and 2) to investigate predictors of distorted symptom perception within the patient group, with a focus on negative affectivity (NA), psychiatric comorbidity and somatic symptom severity.
Seventy-three patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia and/or CFS and 38 healthy controls (HC) completed a rebreathing paradigm, consisting of a baseline (60s of room air), a rebreathing phase (150s, gradually increasing ventilation, partial pressure of CO2 in the blood, and self-reported dyspnea), and a recovery phase (150s of room air). Dyspnea, respiratory flow and FetCO2 levels were measured continuously.
Patients reported more dyspnea than HC in the recovery phase (p=0.039), but no differences between patients and HC were found in the baseline (p=0.07) or rebreathing phase (p=0.17). No significant differences between patients and HC were found in physiological reactivity. Within the patient group, the effect in the recovery phase was predicted by somatic symptom severity (p=0.046), but not by negative affectivity or by the number of psychiatric comorbidities.
This study extended earlier findings in patients with medically unexplained dyspnea to patients with fibromyalgia and CFS. This suggests that altered symptom perception is a non-symptom-specific mechanism underlying functional somatic syndromes in general, particularly in patients with high levels of somatic symptom severity. The results are discussed in a predictive coding framework of symptom perception.

16. Wallis, A, et al. (2018) Open-label pilot for treatment targeting gut dysbiosis in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome: neuropsychological symptoms and sex comparisons.

Journal of Translational Medicine 16 (1): 24. Link: Also see corrected version:

Preliminary evidence suggests that the enteric microbiota may play a role in the expression of neurological symptoms in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). Overlapping symptoms with the acute presentation of D-lactic acidosis has prompted the use of antibiotic treatment to target the overgrowth of species within the Streptococcus genus found in commensal enteric microbiota as a possible treatment for neurological symptoms in ME/CFS.
An open-label, repeated measures design was used to examine treatment efficacy and enable sex comparisons. Participants included 44 adult ME/CFS patients (27 females) from one specialist medical clinic with Streptococcus viable counts above 3.00 × 105 cfu/g (wet weight of faeces) and with a count greater than 5% of the total count of aerobic microorganisms. The 4-week treatment protocol included alternate weeks of Erythromycin (400 mg of erythromycin as ethyl succinate salt) twice daily and probiotic (D-lactate free multistrain probiotic, 5 × 1010 cfu twice daily). 2 × 2 repeated measures ANOVAs were used to assess sex-time interactions and effects across pre- and post-intervention for microbial, lactate and clinical outcomes. Ancillary non-parametric correlations were conducted to examine interactions between change in microbiota and clinical outcomes.
Large treatment effects were observed for the intention-to-treat sample with a reduction in Streptococcus viable count and improvement on several clinical outcomes including total symptoms, some sleep (less awakenings, greater efficiency and quality) and cognitive symptoms (attention, processing speed, cognitive flexibility, story memory and verbal fluency). Mood, fatigue and urine D:L lactate ratio remained similar across time. Ancillary results infer that shifts in microbiota were associated with more of the variance in clinical changes for males compared with females.
Results support the notion that specific microorganisms interact with some ME/CFS symptoms and offer promise for the therapeutic potential of targeting gut dysbiosis in this population. Streptococcus spp. are not the primary or sole producers of D-lactate. Further investigation of lactate concentrations are needed to elucidate any role of D-lactate in this population. Concurrent microbial shifts that may be associated with clinical improvement (i.e., increased Bacteroides and Bifidobacterium or decreased Clostridium in males) invite enquiry into alternative strategies for individualised treatment.

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3 thoughts on “ME Association February Summary of ME/CFS Published Research | 28 February 2018”

  1. I was encouraged to see how much research is going on out there. The detail is a little too scientific for me but I have found the concluding paragraphs very interesting.

  2. Regarding:

    Sharpe M, et al. (2018) Don’t reject evidence from CFS therapies.
    Nature 554 (7690): 31. Link:

    Who do Sharpe, Chalder & Stone reference the Cochrane reviews as “further scientific evidence [which] supports the effectiveness of interventions such as exercise and CBT” when Professor Chalder, in the recent legal action under the Freedom of Information Act, was forced to admit “…that disclosure to the Cochrane review does not count as disclosure to independent scientists as all three of the PACE principal investigators sat on the review panel…”. ???

  3. Regarding:

    Sharpe M, et al. (2018) Don’t reject evidence from CFS therapies.
    Nature 554 (7690): 31. Link:

    Sharpe, Chalder & Stone refer to “exercise” rather than “Graded Exercise Therapy” or GET. This raises the suspicion that they are resorting to the bait and switch fallacy: “The bait-and-switch is a logical fallacy that occurs when someone presents a partial, appealing truth while hiding an unappealing falsehood” ( The term “exercise”, in the context of ME/CFS, is a more innocuous term than “Graded Exercise Therapy” because it could be interpreted as being closer to pacing, lacking the implication of “Graded Exercise Therapy” that ME/CFS is primarily perpetuated by physical deconditioning. The science of ME/CFS certainly indicates that “exercise” (appropriately understood) is less contraindicated than “Graded Exercise Therapy”.

    It’s hard to believe that this was merely a slip of the pen by Sharpe et al. They have consistently, over many years, employed rhetorical ploys and fallacies in order to try and justify their position (this has been well documented by Professor Malcolm Hooper, Dr David Tuller and Professor Steven Lubet as a quick Google search will reveal). The therapy allegedly tested in the PACE trial (allegedly because the ‘trial’ was pseudoscience) was NOT “exercise” but, critically, “Graded Exercise Therapy” (GET). It would be consistent with the way Sharpe et al operate to speak of merely “exercise” in order to disguise their real intention of wanting to foist “Graded Exercise Therapy” (GET) on patients with ME/CFS.

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