From Clinical Nutrition, 19 July 2015. Open access.
Effect of coenzyme Q10 plus nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide supplementation on maximum heart rate after exercise testing in chronic fatigue syndrome – A randomized, controlled, double-blind trial
Jesus Castro-Marrero(a,*,1), Naia Saez-Francas(b,d,1), María Jose Segundo©, Natalia Calvo(d,73), Monica Faro(a), Luisa Aliste(a), Tomas Fernandez de Sevilla(a(, Jose Alegre(a).
a) CFS Clinical Unit, Vall d'Hebron University Hospital Research Institute, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08035, Barcelona, Spain
b) Psychiatry Unit, Sant Rafael Hospital (FIDMAG), 08035, Barcelona, Spain 77
c) Vitae Natural Nutrition, S.L., Sant Cugat del Valles, 08172, Barcelona, Spain
d) Vall d'Hebron University Hospital (CIBERSAM), Psychiatry Department, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08035, Barcelona, Spain
BACKGROUND & AIMS
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) is a complex condition, characterized by severe disabling fatigue with no known cause, no established diagnostic tests, and no universally effective treatment. Several studies have proposed symptomatic treatment with coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) supplementation. The primary endpoint was to assess the effect of CoQ10 plus NADH supplementation on age-predicted maximum heart rate (max HR) during a cycle ergometer test. Secondary measures included fatigue, pain and sleep.
A proof-of-concept, 8-week, randomized, controlled, double-blind trial was conducted in 80 CFS patients assigned to receive either CoQ10 plus NADH supplementation or matching placebo twice daily. Maximum HR was evaluated at baseline and at end of the run-in period using an exercise test. Fatigue, pain and sleep were evaluated at baseline, and then reassessed at 4- and 8-weeks through self-reported questionnaires.
The CoQ10 plus NADH group showed a significant reduction in max HR during a cycle ergometer test at week 8 versus baseline (P = 0.022). Perception of fatigue also showed a decrease through all follow-up visits in active group versus placebo (P = 0.03). However, pain and sleep did not improve in the active group. Coenzyme Q10 plus NADH was generally safe and well tolerated.
Our results suggest that CoQ10 plus NADH supplementation for 8 weeks is safe and potentially effective in reducing max HR during a cycle ergometer test and also on fatigue in CFS. Further additional larger controlled trials are needed to confirm these findings.
Clinical trial registration: this trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02063126.
From Frontiers in Neuroscience, 3 July 2015.
Brain “fog”, inflammation and obesity: key aspects of neuropsychiatric disorders improved by luteolin.
Theoharis C. Theoharides(1,2,3,4*), Julia M. Stewart(1), Erifili Hatziagelaki(5) and Gerasimos Kolaitis(6)
1) Laboratory of Molecular Immunopharmacology and Drug Discovery, Department of Integrative Physiology and Pathobiology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA
2) Departments of Internal Medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine and Tufts Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA
3) Psychiatry, Tufts University School of Medicine and Tufts Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA
4) Sackler School of Graduate Biomedical Sciences, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA
5) Second Department of Internal Medicine, Attikon General Hospital, Athens Medical School, Athens, Greece
6) Department of Child Psychiatry, University of Athens Medical School, Aghia Sophia Children's Hospital, Athens, Greece
Brain “fog” is a constellation of symptoms that include reduced cognition, inability to concentrate and multitask, as well as loss of short and long term memory. Brain “fog” characterizes patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), celiac disease, chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, mastocytosis, and postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS), as well as “minimal cognitive impairment,” an early clinical presentation of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and other neuropsychiatric disorders.
Brain “fog” may be due to inflammatory molecules, including adipocytokines and histamine released from mast cells (MCs) further stimulating microglia activation, and causing focal brain inflammation.
Recent reviews have described the potential use of natural flavonoids for the treatment of neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases. The flavone luteolin has numerous usefulactions that include: anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, microglia inhibition, neuroprotection, and memory increase.
A liposomal luteolin formulation in olive fruit extract improved attention in children with ASDs and brain “fog” in mastocytosis patients. Methylated luteolin analogs with increased activity and better bioavailability could be developed into effective treatments for neuropsychiatric disorders and brain “fog.”