From Archive of Diseases in Childhood, epublished before print 21 October 2013
The epidemiology of chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalitis in children
Correspondence to Dr Esther Crawley, University of Bristol, Centre for Child and Adolescent Health, Oakfield House, Oakfield Grove, Bristol
BS8 2BN, UK,
Most paediatricians regularly see children with chronic fatigue syndrome or myalgic encephalitis (CFS/ME) in their clinics and yet we
know little about how common it is, who is affected, whether there are risk factors and how likely a child is to recover (or what might predict recovery).
Recent research suggests that this illness is more complicated than previously thought and that rather than being an illness found in middle class families, it is more common in those who are socially deprived. This article reviews what is currently known about this important but little understood condition.
From PLosOne, 17 October 2013.
Increased Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines, C-Reactive Protein and Nerve Growth Factor Expressions in Serum of Patients with Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome
Yuan-Hong Jiang (1,2), Chung-Hsin Peng (2,3), Hsin-Tzu Liu(1,4). Hann-Chorng Kuo (1,2)
1) Department of Urology, Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital, Hualien, Taiwan,
2) School of Medicine, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan
3) Department of Urology, Taipei Tzu Chi Hospital, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation, New Taipei City, Taiwan
4) Department of Toxicology, School of Medicine, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan
The etiology and pathogenesis of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) are unclear. Chronic inflammation is considered the main pathology of IC/BPS. This study measured the serum c-reactive protein (CRP), nerve growth factor (NGF) and pro-inflammatory cytokine/chemokine interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and IL-8 expression in patients with IC/BPS to elucidate the involvement of systemic inflammation in IC/BPS.
Serum samples were collected from 30 IC/BPS patients and 26 control subjects. The concentrations of serum nerve growth factor (NGF), IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-8 were quantified using a bead-based, human serum adipokine panel kit. Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) was also assessed. Differences of serum CRP, NGF, IL-1β, IL-6,TNF-α, and IL-8 levels between the IC/BPS patients and controls were compared, and correlations between CRP and pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokine were also evaluated.
The results showed that CRP level (p = 0.031), NGF (p = 0.015) and pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokine IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-8 levels were significantly higher in the patients with IC/BPS than among controls (all p<0.001). Significant associations were observed between IL-1β and IL-8 (p<0.001), IL-6 and CRP (p = 0.01), IL-6 and IL-8 (p = 0.02), and IL-6 and TNF-α (p = 0.03). CONCLUSION Increased pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokine (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-8) expression in the sera of IC/BPS patients implies not only mast cell activation, but also that other inflammatory mediators play important roles in the pathogenesis of IC/BPS. Thus, for some patients, IC/BPS is considered a chronic inflammatory disease. Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.