The ME Association End of Week Research Round-up

Charlotte Stephens, Research Correspondent, ME Association.

We show below brief summaries of the research studies about ME/CFS that have been published in the last week, followed by the abstracts from those studies.

All research relating to ME/CFS can be located in the ME Association: Index of ME/CFS Published Research.

This extensive library of research is updated at the end of every month, and is correct to the end of July 2020. It is a free resource available to anyone.

The Index provides an A-Z of published research studies and selected key documents and articles, listed by subject matter, on myalgic encephalomyelitis, myalgic encephalopathy, and/or chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS).

You can use it to easily locate and read any research in a particular area that you might be interested in, e.g. epidemiology, infection, neurology, post-exertional malaise etc.

You can also find the Research Index in the Research section of the website together with a list of Research Summaries that provide lay explanations of the more important and interesting work that has been published to date.

ME/CFS Research Published 14 – 20 August 2020

This week, 3 new research studies have been published. Highlights include:

  • Researchers from the USA carried out the 10-minute NASA Lean Test (NLT) on patients with ME/CFS and found that it is a useful tool to diagnose the condition and guide the treatment of orthostatic intolerance. They found that patients who had ME/CFS for under 4 years experienced significantly more orthostatic intolerance symptoms and had increased heart rate and abnormally narrowed pulse pressure during the test compared to healthy controls and those who had had ME/CFS for over 10 years.
  • A research group from the Netherlands looked at validating the clinical severity grading that has been proposed by the authors of the ME International Consensus Criteria (ICC), using more standardised measures like questionnaires, and objective measures such as physical activity tracking and cardiopulmonary exercise testing. They confirmed the validity of the ICC severity grading and said that the extra measures should be used to support grading based on self-report, as this can be variable.

ME/CFS Research References and Abstracts

1. Lee J et al. (2020)
Hemodynamics during the 10-minute NASA Lean Test: evidence of circulatory decompensation in a subset of ME/CFS patients.
Journal of Translational Medicine 18 (1): 314.

Abstract
Background: Lightheadedness, fatigue, weakness, heart palpitations, cognitive dysfunction, muscle pain, and exercise intolerance are some of the symptoms of orthostatic intolerance (OI).

There is substantial comorbidity of OI in ME/CFS (Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome). The 10-minute NASA Lean Test (NLT) is a simple, point-of-care method that can aid ME/CFS diagnosis and guide management and treatment of OI. The objective of this study was to understand the hemodynamic changes that occur in ME/CFS patients during the 10-minute NLT.

Methods: A total of 150 ME/CFS patients and 75 age, gender and race matched healthy controls (HCs) were enrolled. We recruited 75 ME/CFS patients who had been sick for less than 4 years (< 4 ME/CFS) and 75 ME/CFS patients sick for more than 10 years (> 10 ME/CFS). The 10-minute NLT involves measurement of blood pressure and heart rate while resting supine and every minute for 10 min while standing with shoulder-blades on the wall for a relaxed stance. Spontaneously reported symptoms are recorded during the test. ANOVA and regression analysis were used to test for differences and relationships in hemodynamics, symptoms and upright activity between groups.

Results: At least 5 min of the 10-minute NLT were required to detect hemodynamic changes. The < 4 ME/CFS group had significantly higher heart rate and abnormally narrowed pulse pressure compared to > 10 ME/CFS and HCs. The < 4 ME/CFS group experienced significantly more OI symptoms compared to > 10 ME/CFS and HCs. The circulatory decompensation observed in the < 4 ME/CFS group was not related to age or medication use.

Conclusions: Circulatory decompensation characterized by increased heart rate and abnormally narrow pulse pressure was identified in a subgroup of ME/CFS patients who have been sick for < 4 years. This suggests inadequate ventricular filling from low venous pressure.

The 10-minute NLT can be used to diagnose and treat the circulatory decompensation in this newly recognized subgroup of ME/CFS patients. The > 10 ME/CFS group had less pronounced hemodynamic changes during the NLT possibly from adaptation and compensation that occurs over time.

The 10-minute NLT is a simple and clinically useful point-of-care method that can be used for early diagnosis of ME/CFS and help guide OI treatment.

2. Loiacono B et al. (2020)
Activity measurement in pediatric chronic fatigue syndrome.
Chronic Illness [Epuab ahead of print].

Abstract
Objectives: Individuals with myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) experience debilitating symptoms, including post-exertional malaise, an intensification of symptoms after physical or cognitive exertion.

Previous studies found differences in the activity levels and patterns of activity among individuals with ME and CFS, compared to healthy controls; however, limited research exists on the activity levels of pediatric patients. The objective of this study was to examine differences in activity between healthy children and youth with ME and CFS.

Methods: The present study examines the objective (i.e., ActiGraphy) and self-reported levels of activity among children (ages 5 to 17) enrolled in a community-based study of pediatric CFS.

Results: Children with ME and CFS evidenced lower activity levels than healthy control children. Moreover, participants with ME and CFS evidenced increased nighttime activity and delayed initiation of daytime activity. Participants’ self-reported activity data significantly correlated with their ActiGraph data, suggesting that children with ME and CFS are able to accurately describe their activity level.

Discussion: This study highlights differences in activity level and diurnal/nocturnal activity patterns between healthy children and those with ME and CFS. These differences should be considered in identifying appropriate supports and accommodations for children with ME and CFS.

3. Van Campen C et al. (2020)
Validation of the Severity of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome by Other Measures than History: Activity Bracelet, Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing and a Validated Activity Questionnaire: SF-36.
Healthcare 8 (3).  

Abstract
Introduction: Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a severe and disabling chronic disease. Grading patient’s symptom and disease severity for comparison and therapeutic decision-making is necessary.

Clinical grading that depends on patient self-report is subject to inter-individual variability. Having more objective measures to grade and confirm clinical grading would be desirable. Therefore, the aim of this study was to validate the clinical severity grading that has been proposed by the authors of the ME International Consensus Criteria (ICC) using more standardized measures like questionnaires, and objective measures such as physical activity tracking and cardiopulmonary exercise testing.

Methods and results: The clinical database of a subspecialty ME/CFS clinic was searched for patients who had completed the SF 36 questionnaire, worn a SensewearTM armband for five days, and undergone a cardiopulmonary exercise test. Only patients who completed all three investigations within 3 months from each other—to improve the likelihood of stable disease—were included in the analysis.

Two-hundred-eighty-nine patients were analyzed: 121 were graded as mild, 98 as moderate and 70 as having severe disease. The mean (SD) physical activity subscale of the SF-36 was 70 (11) for mild, 43 (8) for moderate and 15 (10) for severe ME/CFS patients.

The mean (SD) number of steps per day was 8235 (1004) for mild, 5195 (1231) for moderate and 2031 (824) for severe disease. The mean (SD) percent predicted oxygen consumption at the ventilatory threshold was 47 (11)% for mild, 38 (7)% for moderate and 30 (7)% for severe disease. The percent peak oxygen consumption was 90 (14)% for mild, 64 (8)% for moderate and 48 (9)% for severe disease. All comparisons were p < 0.0001.

Conclusion: This study confirms the validity of the ICC severity grading. Grading assigned by clinicians on the basis of patient self-report created groups that differed significantly on measures of activity using the SF-36 physical function subscale and objective measures of steps per day and exercise capacity.

There was variability in function within severity grading groups, so grading based on self-report can be strengthened by the use of these supplementary measures.

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