From PLoSOne, 6 July 2015.
A Model of Post-Infection Fatigue Is Associated with Increased TNF and 5-HT2A Receptor Expression in Mice
Yvonne Couch(1), Qin Xie(1), Louise Lundberg(1,2), Trevor Sharp(1), Daniel C. Anthony(1)
1) Department of Pharmacology, Mansfield Road, Oxford, OX1 3QT, United Kingdom
2) Public Health England, Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards, Chilton, Didcot, Oxford OX11 0RQ, United Kingdom
It is well documented that serotonin (5-HT) plays an important role in psychiatric illness. For example, myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME/CFS), which is often provoked by infection, is a disabling illness with an unknown aetiology and diagnosis is based on symptom-specific criteria.
However, 5-HT2A receptor expression and peripheral cytokines are known to be upregulated in ME. We sought to examine the relationship between the 5-HT system and cytokine expression following systemic bacterial endotoxin challenge (LPS, 0.5mg/kg i.p.), at a time when the acute sickness behaviours have largely resolved.
At 24 hours post-injection mice exhibit no overt changes in locomotor behaviour, but do show increased immobility in a forced swim test, as well as decreased sucrose preference and reduced marble burying activity, indicating a depressive-like state. While peripheral IDO activity was increased after LPS challenge, central activity levels remained stable and there was no change in total brain 5-HT levels or 5-HIAA/5-HT.
However, within the brain, levels of TNF and 5-HT2A receptor mRNA within various regions increased significantly. This increase in receptor expression is reflected by an increase in the functional response of the 5-HT2A receptor to agonist, DOI.
These data suggest that regulation of fatigue and depressive-like moods after episodes of systemic inflammation may be regulated by changes in 5-HT receptor expression, rather than by levels of enzyme activity or cytokine expression in the CNS.
From Anticancer Research, August 2015.
Oral Colostrum Macrophage-activating Factor for Serious Infection and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Three Case Reports.
Inui T(1), Kubo K(2), Kuchiike D(3), Uto Y(4), Nishikata T(5), Sakamoto N(6), Mette M(7).
1) Department of Life System, Institute of Technology and Science, Graduate School, Tokushima University, Tokushima, Japan Saisei Mirai Cell Processing Center, Osaka, Japan Inui Immunotherapy Clinic, Osaka, Japan email@example.com.
2) Saisei Mirai Cell Processing Center, Osaka, Japan.
3) Department of Life System, Institute of Technology and Science, Graduate School, Tokushima University, Tokushima, Japan Saisei Mirai Cell Processing Center, Osaka, Japan.
4) Department of Life System, Institute of Technology and Science, Graduate School, Tokushima University, Tokushima, Japan.
5) Frontiers of Innovative Research in Science and Technology (FIRST), Konan University, Kobe, Japan.
6) Division of Food and Drug Evaluation Science, Department of Community Medicine and Social Healthcare Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe University, Kobe, Japan.
7Inui Immunotherapy Clinic, Osaka, Japan firstname.lastname@example.org.
Gc protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) immunotherapy has been steadily advancing over the last two decades.
Oral colostrum macrophage-activating factor (MAF) produced from bovine colostrum has shown high macrophage phagocytic activity. GcMAF-based immunotherapy has a wide application for use in treating many diseases via macrophage activation or for use as supportive therapy.
Three case studies demonstrate that oral colostrum MAF can be used for serious infection and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) without adverse effects.
We demonstrate that colostrum MAF shows promising clinical results in patients with infectious diseases and for symptoms of fatigue, which is common in many chronic diseases.